고려대학교 의과대학 및 의과학연구지원센터 구성원이 아닌 경우에는 본인인증을 통하여 글을 작성할 수 있습니다.
- 본인인증 후 글을 작성할 수 있습니다.
내 명의의 휴대전화로 비밀번호를 재설정 할 수 있습니다.
Why do mitochondria continue a fission-fusion cycle?
Acting as the so-called 'powerhouses of cells,' mitochondria develop mitochondrial membrane potential through their unique metabolism in electron transport chain to produce ATP, the cellular energy source. Though mitochondria generate energy in high efficiency, cells consume huge amount of energy to keep mitochondria healthy because dysfunctional mitochondria could do much harm to cells. Mitochondria continue to change shapes via fission and fusion, which is considered an essential process to keep them functional. For example, damaged mitochondria can recover their function by fusing with healthy ones. Moreover, damaged regions of mitochondria are separated by mitochondrial fission for disposal. Damaged mitochondria usually have low membrane potential and are selectively eliminated through autophagy. Though defects in autophagy are deeply correlated with degenerative brain diseases, diabetes and heart diseases and have been studied by many experts, it is not well understood how a cell can recognize and get rid of damaged mitochondria.
The research team in the lab of anatomy led by Prof. Sun Woong found that Drp1, a protein involved in mitochondrial fission, interacts with mitochondrial zinc transporter Zip1, reduces the mitochondrial membrane potential and cuts mitochondria into pieces to selectively remove those pieces that are not able to restore the membrane potential. As inhibition of Drp1 and Zip1 interaction reduces the mitochondrial membrane potential and blocks the removal of damaged mitochondria, energy synthesizing capabilities of mitochondria are reduced and growth of neurons are interrupted, according to researchers. Based on their results, Prof. Sun Woong's research team set up a hypothesis that cells examine the mitochondrial health through an energy consuming fission process. As the mitochondrial quality control process is very crucial to human health, studies on this topic will be able to provide essential clues to the treatment of diseases caused by dysfunctional mitochondria.
pubmed link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30581142
Mol Cell. 2019 Jan 17;73(2):364-376.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2018.11.009. Epub 2018 Dec 20.
Investigation of Mitochondrial Reprogramming via ATP5H Loss in Multimodal Cancer Therapy Resistance
(mitochondrial reprogramming via ATP5H loss promotes multimodal cancer therapy resistance.)
Cancer immunotherapy has drawn great attention from the medical industry, but it is not readily available, because, generally, the therapeutic outcome is poor, owing to inherent resistance of cancer cells to the treatment. Meanwhile, it has been known that the immune system plays a pivotal role in the emergence of tumor cells that are refractory to multiple clinical interventions, including immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. But the mechanism is not clear.
A research team led by Professor Tae-woo Kim of Department of Biomedical Sciences suggested new molecular mechanisms by which the immune system triggers cross-resistance to multimodal anti-cancer treatments. In this connection, the researchers witnessed a decline in epigenetic manifestation of ATP5H from tumor cells resistant to immunotherapy, which uses cytotoxic T cells. The team also uncovered that ATP5H loss is involved in the multimodality resistance to therapy, including immune resistance. A loss of ATP5H, one of the components of mitochondrial ATP synthase, triggers cancer metabolic reprogramming along with mitochondrial dysfunction, and promotes multimodality resistance to cancer therapy by accumulating ROS, and leading to ROS-mediated HIF-1α stabilization in normal oxygen conditions. It was proven that in vivo delivery of antioxidants reverses immune-resistant tumors, and phenotypic resistance to anticancer drugs of resistant tumor, and, in doing so, reactivity to the conventional therapies can increases. It was also found that ATP5H loss in tumors was closely linked to the failure of therapy, cancer progression, and poor survival in patients.
The study results clarified the importance of mitochondrial reprogramming via ATP5H loss in the issue of multimodal cancer therapy resistance led by immune system. Further, the research team suggested that targeting the mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming in the tumor cells can be an effective cancer therapy, in an effort to treat refractory cancers resistant to cancer therapy.
The research results were published in Journal of Clinical Investigation under the title, Mitochondrial Reprogramming via ATP5H Loss Promotes Multimodal Cancer Therapy Resistance.
pubmed link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30124467
J Clin Invest. 2018 Aug 31;128(9):4098-4114. doi: 10.1172/JCI96804. Epub 2018 Aug 20.
Symposium Titled Medicine and Policy and Medicine and Law
Hosted by the Korea University College of Medicine Marking
its 90th Anniversary
The Korea University College of Medicine, celebrating the 90th anniversary of its founding, hosted symposiums entitled Medicine and Policy, and Medicine and Law.
The Medicine and Policy forum, held on June 26th, discussed the theme of How the 4th Industrial Revolution Affects Health and Medical Industry. Opening remarks by Dean Hong sik Lee of the College of Medicine, and a congratulatory speech by Executive Vice President Kee-hyoung Lee of Medical Affairs were followed by sessions of special lectures, photo time, presentations, and panel discussions.
“The KU College of Medicine has served the nation, living up to social expectations over the past 90 years. Marking the anniversary, we’ve held this Medicine and Policy symposium based on a belief that we are at a critical juncture of history in the face of the 4th Industrial Revolution, hoping to take the lead in the race,” said Dr. Hong sik Lee. “Hopefully, today, experts and officials in the health and medical industry will be able to get ample information on how to prepare for the future, by sharing insights as the industry is changing daily.”
“Based on our proud 90-year history, the Korea University Medical Center (KUMC) and the KU College of Medicine are actively preparing for the 4th Industrial Revolution, to take a new leap forward in the upcoming era, and I believe that today’s meeting wil play some role in discovering any new opportunities,” said Executive Vice President Kee-hyoung Lee of Medical Affairs, and he added, “I hope that top experts in every field have fruitful discussions and develop game-changing ideas for the future. Congratulations on these anniversary!”
The first session was about a) the 4th Industrial Revolution and health policy and b) the future of hospital information in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution. In this session, attendees shared professional opinions about the Revolution, and the medical environment in general. The second session had in-depth presentations for each field about a) precision medicine and the 4th Industrial Revolution, b) the health insurance system and the 4th Industrial Revolution, and c) the present and future of smart health care. Last, at a panel discussion, Dr. Soon-gu Myung (Dean of the Korea University School of Law), Mr. Hyun-woong Shin (Head of the Health Care Policy Research Department at the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs or KIHASA), and Professor Bumsoo Kim (the Department of Economics in Korea University College of Political Science and Economics) discussed these matters in depth.
The Medicine and Law forum was held on September 18th under the theme of How to Use Big Data in the Medical Industry and Information Protection.
“The KU College of Medicine has held this Medicine and Law symposium in an effort to seek measures in response to many social issues we face marking the 90th anniversary of the school, which has served society and the nation,” Dean Lee of the College of Medicine said. “I hope experts from various fields share opinions and gather wisdom to help us go in the right direction in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution, at a time when information is flooding in.”
“Big data in medicine is the key technology in the bio-health industry, hopefully playing a central role in improving quality of medicine, through aspects such as clinical treatment and research, enhancing efficiency, and developing the industry further,” Executive Vice President Lee of Medical Affairs said. “I hope that today’s symposium will provide a great opportunity not only to encourage research and development in big data in medicine, but also to draw practical measures for a system to develop the industry.”
The symposium started on the theme of the current state of information protection in Korea and the challenges ahead. The session was followed by in-depth presentations about a) how to use big data in medicine and its challenges, b) how to address issues of personal information protection when using big data in health and medicine (technology-oriented) c) precision medicine and information protection, and d) how to reform information protection laws for the future. At the last session, Office Manager Sang-yoon Oh (for Healthcare Policy in the Ministry of Health and Welfare), Professor Joon-young Lee (of Biostatistics at KUCM), Professor Gun-wook Kang (of Nuclear Medicine Department at the Seoul National University College of Medicine), and Professor Young-hak Kim (of the Cardiology Department at the Seoul Asan Medical Center) had a panel discussion.
KUCM is planning to host a third forum named Medicine and Education, as part of the celebration of its 90th anniversary.
People with Metabolic Syndrome,
2.2 Times More Likely to Have Parkinson’s Disease
During a 5-year follow-up period 17.16 million large-scale cohorts observed
The higher number of MetS components, the higher risk of Parkinson’s Disease
A research team led by Dr. Seonmee Kim of the Department of Family Medicine, and Dr. Kyung-mook Choi of the Division of Endocrinology at the Department of Internal Medicine in Korea University Guro Hospital analyzed health checkup data of 17.16 million adults aged 40 or older between Jan. 1, 2009 and Dec. 31, 2012, provided by the government-run National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), and observed them for a follow-up period of five years. The findings revealed that the incidence rate of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) in the MetS group was approximately 2.2 times higher than that of the non-MetS group.
Out of the entire study’s participants, 34.1% or 5,848,508 individuals had MetS, and 44,205 individuals were diagnosed with PD during the follow-up period. The incidence rate of PD in the MetS group was 0.75 persons per 1,000, that is, 2.2 times higher than that of the non-MetS group (0.34 persons). These associations persisted even after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Regardless of how hard the MetS group tried to improve their health conditions and lifestyle, including age, sexually transmitted disease, exercise, drinking, smoking, and all the other risk factors, people with MetS had a 24% higher risk of incident PD.
The results show that MetS components are positively associated with increased PD risk, and that individuals with a higher number of MetS components were at higher risk of the incidence of PD. Individuals without the MetS component were likely to have PD at the rate of 0.20 persons per 1,000, while those with 1 MetS component were at 0.34, those with 2 components at 0.47, those with 3 components at 0.61, those with 4 components at 0.82, and those with 5 components at 1.09.
When someone has at least three conditions of the following conditions: abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, high blood triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol, they are diagnosed with MetS. Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects predominantly dopamine-producing neurons in a specific area of the brain, and the number of such neurons decrease, causing difficulty to move. Symptoms generally develop gradually over years, and include slowed movement, tremor, rigid muscles, and impaired posture and balance.
“Over the years, the association between MetS and the incidence of PD has often been suggested from outside Korea, but it is the first time to study such a large database; as many as 17.16 million participants all over the world,” said the research team. “It is necessary for people with MetS to make efforts to reduce the risk of acquiring MetS, because each and every MetS component is associated with PD risk, and even a single component would increase the likelihood for one to get PD.”
This research results were published in the latest edition of PLOS Medicine.
pubmed link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30130376
PLoS Med. 2018 Aug 21;15(8):e1002640. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002640. eCollection 2018 Aug.